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The role of orthodontic tooth movement in bone and root mineral density: A study of patients submitted and not submitted to orthodontic treatment

Marcio José da Silva Campos, Elisa Gomes de Albuquerque, Bernardo Caixeiro Hauck Pinto, Hélio Moreira Húngaro, Marco Abdo Gravina, Marcelo Reis Fraga, Robert Willer Farinazzo Vitral

Med Sci Monit 2012; 18(12): CR752-757

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.883604

Available online: 2012-12-01

Published: 2012-12-01

Background:    Orthodontic force application to the teeth is responsible for a series of biological responses in the bone and dentin, which lead to some alterations of the mineral density of the tissues. Our objective was determine, through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the mineral density of the apical third of the roots of the upper central incisors and of the periapical bone portion surrounding these teeth, in patients submitted to orthodontic treated and untreated individuals.
    Material/Methods:    30 untreated individuals and 15 treated ones (treatment cessation at least 1 year before the study) underwent CBCT. Mineral density was assessed in the apical third of the root of the upper central incisors and in the alveolar bone in the periapical region of these teeth. In order to reduce CBCT-related mineral density variability, we standardized the cone-beam tomography device, the image-acquisition settings and the field of view positioning and size. Student’s t test was used for the analyses.
    Results:    bone mineral density (BMD) and root mineral density (RMD), in Hounsfield Units, were 674.84 and 1282.26 for the untreated group and 630.28 and 1370.29 for the treated group, respectively. The differences between the group means were statistically significant for RMD (p<0.05).
    Conclusions:    untreated individuals had a significant lower mean RMD in comparison with those submitted to orthodontic treatment.

Keywords: Tooth Root - radiography, Reference Values, Tooth Movement, Orthodontics - methods, Incisor - radiography, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Bone Density - physiology, Adult, young adult