FTY720 postconditions isolated perfused heart by a mechanism independent of sphingosine kinase 2 and different from S1P or ischemic postconditioning
Donald A. Vessey, Luyi Li, Isabella Imhof, Norman Honbo, Joel S. Karliner
Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2013; 19:126-132
We investigated the hypothesis that postconditioning by FTY720 (FTY) in isolated perfused mouse hearts is independent of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway.
Material and Methods: Ex vivo hearts were exposed to postconditioning (POST) by either ischemia or FTY720. Protection against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury was measured by recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and infarct size.
Results: FTY effectively postconditioned (POST) ex vivo hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury as measured by recovery of LVDP and a low infarct size. FTY protection, unlike S1P but like sphingosine (Sph), was insensitive to inhibition of S1P G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) or inhibition of PI3 kinase. Protection by FTY and Sph was however blocked by inhibitors of PKA and PKG. Thus, FTY follows the same cardioprotective pathway as Sph. This was further supported by studies of FTY POST in knockout (KO) mice lacking the SphK2 form of Sph kinase that is needed for phosphorylation of FTY to an S1P analog. In the absence of SphK2, FTY (and Sph) POST was still cardioprotective. This differed from the effect of SphK2 KO on protection by ischemic POST (IPOST). IPOST was not effective in KO hearts. To see if the GPCR signaling pathway to protection is normal in KO hearts, we looked at POST by GPCR agonists S1P and adenosine. Both provided effective protection even in KO hearts suggesting that the problem with IPOST in KO hearts is a low level of S1P available for release during IPOST. Thus, pharmacologic POST with FTY or Sph, like adenosine and S1P, is unaffected in the KO.
Conclusions: FTY720 administered in vivo might behave in a dual manner showing both S1P-like effects and sphingosine-like effects. It appears that the latter may have been overlooked and may be the more important in aging hearts.
Keywords: Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) - metabolism, Perfusion, Phosphorylation, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Lysophospholipids - metabolism, Ischemic Postconditioning - methods, Immunosuppressive Agents - pharmacology, Animals, Algorithms, Adenosine - metabolism, Propylene Glycols - pharmacology, Reperfusion Injury, Sphingosine - pharmacology