Echocardiographic markers of left ventricular dysfunction among men with uncontrolled hypertension and stage 3 chronic kidney disease
Radosław Grabysa, Zofia Wańkowicz
Department of Internal Diseases and Cardiology, Medica Healthcare Centre, Ostróda, Poland
Med Sci Monit 2013; 19:838-845
Current guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension (AH) emphasize the importance of diagnosing subclinical organ damage, which determines cardiovascular prognosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LV geometry patterns, and LV systolic/diastolic dysfunction among men with uncontrolled AH and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3A and 3B.
Material and Methods: The study group included 256 men with essential AH. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the simplified MDRD equation. Left ventricular structure and function were assessed using echocardiography.
Results: Target blood pressure values were observed in 44 (17.2%) patients. In the studied group, eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was found in 67 (26.2%) subjects. Forty-nine (19.14%) patients were in stage 3A and 18 patients (7.03%) in stage 3B of CKD. We demonstrated that LVEDD, LA, RWT, and LVMI ECHO parameters were distinctly higher (p<0.05) in poorly controlled hypertensive patients in CKD stage 3B when compared with patients in CKD stage 3A. A significantly higher prevalence of LVH, including LV eccentric hypertrophy, was observed in stage 3B when compared to stage 3A of CKD (p<0.05). LVEF and E/A ratio decreased along with the decline of renal function (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Relationships between eGFR values and echocardiographic abnormalities of LV structure and function observed by us support the division of CKD stage 3 into 2 substages, 3A and 3B, as proposed by recently published guidelines. Intensification of therapeutic regimen in the CKD 3B substage is therefore crucial from both cardiological and nephrological perspectives.
Keywords: Adult, Aged, 80 and over, Biological Markers, Blood Chemical Analysis, Blood Pressure, Echocardiography, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Hypertension - drug therapy, Poland - epidemiology, Prevalence, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic - etiology, Ventricular Dysfunction, Left - etiology