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Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

Raphael Richard Ciuman

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Teaching Hospital, Marienhospital Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Germany

Med Sci Monit 2013; 19:1195-1210

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.889815

Available online:

Published: 2013-12-23

In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy.

Keywords: Labyrinth Diseases - therapy, Genetic Therapy - trends, Models, Biological, Otolaryngology - trends, Stem Cell Transplantation - trends