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Cytotoxic effect of endodontic irrigants in vitro

Donika Bajrami, Veton Hoxha, Omer Gorduysus, Sevda Muftuoglu, Nacije Dilara Zeybek, Selen Küçükkaya

Department of Dental Pathology and Endodontics, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2014; 20:22-26

DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.890247

Available online: 2014-03-10

Published: 2014-03-10

Background: Cytotoxicity of root canal irrigants is important due to their close contact with host tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic effect of NaOCl 3%, Chx 2%, and MTAD on rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts, at 0.1 and 100 µl/mL, using WST-1 colorimetric method.
Material and Methods: Rat ligamental fibroblasts were exposed to the irrigants and their viability was assessed after 1, 24, 48, and 72 h. The measurements were determined using WST-1 assay, using a micro ELISA reader.
Results: At 100 ml/L all 3 irrigants were strongly cytotoxic, although CHX was less so than NaOCl and MTAD. At the 0.1 ml/L concentration, NaOCl and MTAD were only moderately cytotoxic, whereas Chx was highly deleterious to cell viability at all time points. There was a significant influence of the dilution rate of the substance, because the odds ratio for cell viability being over 50% was increased 51 times between the 100 ml/L and 0.1 ml/L dilutions.
Conclusions: It seems that irrigating solutions should be used at lower concentrations to enhance cell viability.

Keywords: Cell Death - drug effects, Animals, Cell Survival - drug effects, Endodontics, Periodontal Ligament - pathology, Rats, Root Canal Irrigants - pharmacology