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Ophthalmological Features of Parkinson Disease

Barbara Nowacka, Wojciech Lubinski, Krystyna Honczarenko, Andrzej Potemkowski, Krzysztof Safranow

Department of Ophthalmology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland

Med Sci Monit 2014; 20:2243-2249

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.890861

Available online:

Published: 2014-11-11

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the type and frequency of ophthalmologic changes occurring in patients with Parkinson disease (PD).
Material and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients (196 eyes) with idiopathic PD and a control group consisting of 100 healthy patients (196 eyes) matched for age and sex underwent a complete ophthalmological examination of both eyes, including assessment of patient medical history, dry eye questionare, and visual hallucinations questionnaire, distance and near best corrected visual acuity (DBCVA, NBCVA), color vision, distance photopic contrast sensitivity, near point of convergence, slit lamp examination of the eye anterior segment, tear film osmolarity and breakup time, aqueous tear production, and intraocular pressure, as well as fundus examination and evaluation of the perimacular retinal thickness (RT) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.
Results: In the eyes of PD patients DBCVA, NBCVA, contrast sensitivity, and color discrimination were significantly reduced. We also detected increased frequency of convergence insufficiency, seborrhoic blepharitis, meibomian gland disease (MGD), dry eye syndrome, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, and glaucoma (p<0.05). However, intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower in the PD group compared to controls. The frequency of visual hallucinations, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and other ophthalmological diseases, as well as RT and RNFL thickness, did not significantly differ between investigated groups.
Conclusions: Clinicians need to be aware of the association between PD and ophthalmological changes. Restoration of good-quality vision has a great impact on PD patients’ quality of life, reduction of costs of treatment and care, and rehabilitation.

Keywords: Eye - pathology, Case-Control Studies, Glaucoma - pathology, Parkinson Disease - pathology, Questionnaires