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Holmium Laser Lithotripsy with Semi-Rigid Ureteroscopy: A First-Choice Treatment for Impacted Ureteral Stones in Children?

Senol Adanur, Hasan Riza Aydin, Fatih Ozkaya, Tevfik Ziypak, Ozkan Polat

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey

Med Sci Monit 2014; 20:2373-2379

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.891173

Available online:

Published: 2014-11-21

Background: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of semi-rigid ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of impacted ureteral stones in children.
Material and Methods: We evaluated a total of 32 children under the age of 18 years treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for impacted ureteral stones between January 2005 and July 2013. Their stone-free state was defined as the absence of any residual stone on radiologic evaluation performed 4 weeks postoperatively. Complications were evaluated according to the modified Clavien classification.
Results: The mean patient age was 9.5±5.1 years (range 1–18 years). Seven (21.8%) of the stones were located in the proximal ureter, 9 (28.2%) were in the mid-ureter, and 16 (50%) were in the distal ureter. The mean stone size was calculated as being 10.46±3.8 mm2 (range 5–20). The stone-free rate was 93.75% (30/32 patients) following primary URS. Additional treatment was required for only 2 (6.25%) of the patients. After the procedure, a D-J stent was placed in all the patients. The total complication rate was 15.6% (5 patients). The 10 total complications in these 5 patients were 5 (15.6%) Grade I, 1 (3.1%) Grade II, 2 (6.25%) Grade IIIa, and 2 (6.25%) Grade IIIb. The mean follow-up period was 16.5 months (range 3–55).
Conclusions: For the treatment of impacted ureteral stones in children, holmium laser lithotripsy with semi-rigid ureteroscopy, with its low retreatment requirement and acceptable complication rates, is an effective and reliable method in experienced and skilled hands as a first-choice treatment approach.

Keywords: Child, Adolescent, Child, Preschool, Demography, Lasers, Solid-State - adverse effects, Lithotripsy, Laser - adverse effects, Postoperative Complications - etiology, Ureteral Calculi - therapy, Ureteroscopy