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The Role of Thyroid and Parathyroid Metabolism Disorders in the Etiology of Sudden Onset Dizziness

Ugur Lok, Sinan Hatipoglu, Umut Gulacti, Abdullah Arpaci, Nurettin Aktas, Tayfun Borta

Department of Emergency, Adiyaman University, Medical Faculty, Adiyaman, Turkey

Med Sci Monit 2014; 20:2689-2694

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.891305

Available online:

Published: 2014-12-16

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid and parathyroid functions as a cause of sudden onset dizziness (SOD) in patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department (ED).
Material and Methods: This study was conducted prospectively in 100 patients with sudden onset dizziness (SOD) admitted to the ED. Neurologic, ear-nose-throat, detailed neck examinations, serum calcium levels, thyroid function tests (TFT), and parathormone and thyroid ultrasounds were performed on all patients in our study.
Results: Thirty-seven (37%) females and 63 (63%) males were included in this study. Four patients (4%) had elevated serum TSH levels, 6 (6%) had decreased serum fT3 levels, 10 (10%) had decreased serum fT4 levels, 2 (2%) had elevated serum fT4 levels, and 2 (2%) had elevated serum parathormone levels. In 4 (4%) patients, the serum calcium levels were lower than normal, and 2 (50%) of these patients had symptomatic hypocalcemia. Thyroid ultrasound examinations showed multinodular goiter in 28 (28%) patients, 2 (2%) patients had thyroiditis, 12 (12%) had an isolated unilateral nodule, and 58 (58%) had normal thyroid tissues.
Conclusions: We suggest that detailed neck examination, TFT, and thyroid ultrasound examination should be considered in the diagnostic algorithms of SOD to provide rapid diagnosis and proper treatment for a patient in the ED.

Keywords: Calcium - blood, Adult, Dizziness - etiology, Parathyroid Diseases - complications, Parathyroid Glands - ultrasonography, Parathyroid Hormone - blood, Thyroid Diseases - complications, Thyroid Gland - ultrasonography, Thyrotropin - blood, Thyroxine - blood, Triiodothyronine - blood, young adult