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Antioxidant Activity Characterization, Phytochemical Screening, and Proximate Analysis of Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) Roots and Leaves

Ebby-Anuar Bahari, Nur Eleza Zaaba, Norhisham Haron, Razif Dasiman, Zulkhairi Amom

Natural Product & Phytomedicine Biotechnology Research Laboratory (NPPBRL), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2014; 20:170-175

DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.892345

Available online: 2014-11-07

Published: 2014-11-07


Background: Roots and leaves of the Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) plant were studied to determine antioxidant activity, phytochemical compounds, proportion of carbohydrate, crude protein, moisture, ash, fat, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC).
Material and Methods: Ten percent (10%) aqueous extract from both Phyllanthus gomphocarpus roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) were used in this study. Antioxidant activity characterization by TPC, TFC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, and phytochemical screening, as well as proximate analysis from both extracts were analyzed in this study.
Results: Phyllanthus gphocarpuoms roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) tested positive for flavonoid, saponin, tannins, and terpenoids, but PGR showed negative result for anthraquinones. In average weight of 100.0 g dry sample, the carbohydrates, protein, moisture, ash, fat, and energy content in PGR and PGL were 80.9%, 5.5%, 7.8%, 3.4%, 2.4%, and 367 Kcal/100g, and 66.5%, 14.8%, 10.7%, 6.5%, 1.5%, and 399 Kcal/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant assessments using FRAP and DPPH assay showed that PGL extracts possessed higher antioxidant capacity by reducing the ferric ion-TPTZ complex by 0.14 mg/ml ±0.0018 and higher scavenging activity, 83.83% ±0.54 as compared to PGR, 0.07 mg/ml ±0.0035 for FRAP and 62.87% ±1.33 for DPPH, respectively. The total phenolics content was significantly higher in PGL (208.77 mg GAE/g ±3.79) as compared to PGR (27.53 mg GAE/g ±0.42). However, there was no significant different in the total flavonoid contents for PGR (34.8 mg QE/g ±3.12) and PGL (32.43 mg QE/g ±3.92).
Conclusions: Further investigations are suggested to isolate and characterize the other active constituents from this plant in combatting diseases.

Keywords: Biphenyl Compounds - metabolism, Antioxidants - pharmacology, Chemical Fractionation, Flavonoids - analysis, Free Radical Scavengers - metabolism, Iron - metabolism, Oxidation-Reduction - drug effects, Phenols - analysis, Phyllanthus - chemistry, Phytochemicals - pharmacology, Picrates - metabolism, Plant Leaves - chemistry, Plant Roots - chemistry