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16 August 2015 : Clinical Research  

Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Biomarkers of Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients: A Randomized, Crossover, Controlled Clinical Trial

Sanja Kozić DokmanovićABCDEF, Krunoslava KolovratB, Renata LaškajB, Vedrana JukićB, Nada VrkićABD, Josip BegovacABCDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.893881

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2406-2413

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Premature atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients is associated with chronic infection by itself and adverse effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system because of its anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this study was to determine whether the consumption of EVOO improves inflammation and atherosclerosis biomarkers in HIV-infected patients receiving ART.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized, crossover, controlled trial included 39 HIV-positive male participants who consumed 50 mL of EVOO or refined olive oil (ROO) daily. Four participants dropped out of the study. Leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6, fibrinogen, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, malondialdehyde, glutathione-peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, oxidized LDL and von Willebrand factor were determined before the first and after each of the 2 intervention periods. Intervention and washout periods lasted for 20 and 14 days, respectively.

RESULTS: In participants with >90% compliance (N=30), hsCRP concentrations were lower after EVOO intervention (geometric mean [GM], 1.70 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–2.52) compared to ROO administration (GM, 2.92 mg/L; 95% CI, 1.95–4.37) (p=0.035). In participants using lopinavir/ritonavir, ESR and hsCRP concentrations decreased 62% and 151%, respectively, after EVOO administration. In the whole study population (N=35) we found no difference in analyzed biomarkers after EVOO administration.

CONCLUSIONS: Our exploratory study suggests that EVOO consumption could lower hsCRP in patients on ART.

Keywords: Adolescent, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Atherosclerosis - prevention & control, Biomarkers - blood, C-Reactive Protein - metabolism, Cross-Over Studies, Drug Combinations, Food Handling, HIV Infections - drug therapy, HIV Protease Inhibitors - therapeutic use, Inflammation Mediators - blood, Lopinavir - therapeutic use, Olive Oil - isolation & purification, Ritonavir - therapeutic use, Single-Blind Method, young adult

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416