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Prognostic Factors of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

Sang-Hoon Lee, Kyung-Jae Park, Shin-Hyuk Kang, Yong-Gu Jung, Jung-Yul Park, Dong-Hyuk Park

Department of Neurosurgery, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2638-2646

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.894132

Available online:

Published: 2015-09-05

BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a well-known condition, but ICH restricted to the thalamus is less widely studied. We investigated the prognostic factors of thalamic ICHs.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy patients from January 2009 to November 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who demonstrated spontaneous ICH primarily affecting the thalamus on initial brain computed tomography (CT) were enrolled. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Various presumptive prognostic factors were analyzed to investigate relationships between various clinical characteristics and outcomes.
RESULTS: Of the enrolled patients, 39 showed a GOS of 4–5, and were categorized as the good outcome group, while another 31 patients showed a GOS of 1–3 and were categorized as the poor outcome group. Initial GCS score, calculated volume of hematoma, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), coexisting complications, hydrocephalus, performance of external ventricular drainage, and modified Graeb’s scores of patients with IVH were significantly different between the 2 groups. In multivariate analysis, among the factors above, initial GCS score (P=0.002, Odds ratio [OR]=1.761, Confidence interval [CI]=1.223–2.536) and the existence of systemic complications (P=0.015, OR=0.059, CI=0.006–0.573) were independently associated with clinical outcomes. Calculated hematoma volume showed a borderline relationship with outcomes (P=0.079, OR=0.920, CI=0.839–1.010).
CONCLUSIONS: Initial GCS score and the existence of systemic complications were strong predictive factors for prognosis of thalamic ICH. Calculated hematoma volume also had predictive value for clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Cerebral Hemorrhage - therapy, Brain - radiography, Drainage, Glasgow Outcome Scale, Hydrocephalus - therapy, Multivariate Analysis, Odds Ratio, Prognosis, Severity of Illness Index, Thalamus - radiography, Tomography, X-Ray Computed