Oxidative Stress and Total Antioxidant Status During Internal Carotid Artery Clamping with or without Shunting: An Experimental Pilot Study
Anastasios Papapetrou, Demetrios Moris, Nikolaos Patelis, George N. Kouvelos, Chris Bakogiannis, Chris Klonaris, Sotiris Georgopoulos
1st Department of Surgical, Vascular Division, Laikon General Hospital, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2015; 21:200-205
The exact role of shunting during carotid endarterectomy remains controversial and unclear. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate to what degree carotid clamping may induce changes in the cerebral oxidative status and to focus on the relation of these changes with shunt insertion.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty New-Zealand rabbits were randomized into 4 groups: group 1 classifying animals with carotid shunt and patent contralateral carotid artery; group 2 shunt and occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery; group 3 no-shunt and patent contralateral carotid artery; and group 4 no-shunt and occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery. Blood samples were collected from the ipsilateral internal jugular vein, immediately after carotid clamping (time 0), and then at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes afterwards. Evaluation of oxidative stress was accomplished by measuring the lag-time, representing the initial phase of oxidation, rate of accumulation (RA), showing concentration of free oxygen radical and total antioxidant status (TAS) representing antioxidant composition of serum.
RESULTS: Lag-time was significantly different in time points 0, 30 and 60 minutes within each different group. TAS was significantly different in time points 0, 15 and 60 min and RA in time points 0, 5, 10 and 60 min within each different group. 60 minutes after carotid clamping, the rate of accumulation as well as lag-time and TAS were increased in all groups, independently of using or not shunting or the presence of contralateral occlusion.
After comparing groups 1, 2 and 3 regarding lag-time, TAS and RA, we did not find statistical difference among the groups at any time point. On the contrary, groups 1, 2 and 3 did show significantly different values comparing to group 4 after 60 min of occlusion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental work based on cerebral metabolism found a significantly higher oxidative stress in models with contralateral carotid occlusion. The use of shunt in all other models did not have any influence on oxidative response. Future human studies should focus on the relation of oxidative status and shunt insertion to determine the benefit of selective or routine shunting during CEA.
Keywords: Antioxidants - physiology, Animals, Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical - methods, Brain Ischemia - metabolism, Carotid Arteries - surgery, Constriction, Endarterectomy, Carotid - methods, Models, Animal, Oxidative Stress - physiology, Pilot Projects, Rabbits, Random Allocation