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Changes in Copper, Zinc, and Malondialdehyde Levels and Superoxide Dismutase Activities in Pre-Eclamptic Pregnancies

Murat Bakacak, Metin Kılınç, Salih Serin, Önder Ercan, Bülent Köstü, Fazıl Avcı, Hakan Kıran, Gürkan Kıran

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2414-2420

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.895002

Available online:

Published: 2015-08-17

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder that occurs in 2% to 8% of pregnancies. Although numerous studies have investigated the etiology and pathophysiology of preeclampsia, the precise pathological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hence, in the present study malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and SOD expression, and Cu and Zn concentrations and ratios were correlated with birth weights in pregnant women with and without PE, and in non-pregnant females of reproductive age.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined spectrophotometrically, and Cu and Zn levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry in serum from 42 non-pregnant women (NP), 40 healthy pregnant women (HP), and 38 pre-eclamptic pregnant (PE) women. Subsequently, Cu/Zn ratios were calculated and associations with birth weights were analyzed using Spearman correlations.
RESULTS: Cu, Zn, and MDA levels and Cu/Zn ratios were significantly higher in the PE group than in the HP and NP groups, and were significantly higher in the HP than in the NP group (p<0.001 and p<0.001; respectively). In contrast, serum Zn and SOD levels were significantly lower in the PE group than in HP and NP groups, and were significantly lower in the HP group than in the NP group (p<0.001 and p<0.001; respectively). However, only Cu and Zn levels were significantly associated with fetal birth weights (r=–0.433, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Serum Cu/Zn ratios may reflect vascular complications of PE, and the ensuing increases in lipid peroxidation may play important pathogenic roles.

Keywords: Case-Control Studies, Birth Weight, Adult, Copper - blood, Infant, Newborn, Lipid Peroxidation, Malondialdehyde - blood, Oxidative Stress, Pre-Eclampsia - blood, Pregnancy, Superoxide Dismutase - blood, Zinc - blood