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Urinary Kidney Injury Molecules in Children with Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Ali Güneş, Aydın Ece, Fesih Aktar, İlhan Tan, Murat Söker, Duran Karabel, Hasan Balık, Ünal Uluca, Velat Şen, İlyas Yolbaş

Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:4023-4029

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.896794

Available online:

Published: 2015-12-24


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the urine levels of human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five children with IDA and 32 matched healthy controls were recruited. We assessed complete blood count, serum iron, iron-binding capacity, ferritin, serum levels of urea, creatinine (Cr), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and glucose levels. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urinary NAG, NGAL, KIM-1, and L-FABP were measured and divided by urine creatinine for comparisons.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in serum urea, Cr, or eGFR between the IDA group and the control group (p>0.05, for all). IDA patients had significantly higher urine NGAL/Cr, L-FABP/Cr, KIM-1/Cr, and NAG/Cr compared with the control group (p<0.05). There were significant negative correlations between hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and urine NGAL/Cr, NAG/Cr, L-FABP/Cr, KIM-1/Cr levels (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher urinary kidney injury molecule levels in IDA patients suggest a possible subclinical renal injury in pediatric IDA patients whose renal functions and serum electrolytes were normal.

Keywords: Acetylglucosaminidase - urine, Acute-Phase Proteins - urine, Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - urine, Biomarkers - urine, Case-Control Studies, Child, Child, Preschool, Creatinine - blood, Electrolytes - blood, Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins - urine, Hemoglobins - metabolism, Kidney Diseases - urine, Kidney Function Tests, Lipocalins - urine, Membrane Glycoproteins - urine, Proto-Oncogene Proteins - urine, Receptors, Virus



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