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22 February 2017 : Original article  

Effect of Smoking on Cognitive Functioning in Young Saudi Adults

Shahid Bashir12ABCDEF*, Faisal Alghamd3ABDEF, Ahmed Alhussien3ABCDF, Meshal Alohali3ABCDEF, Abdullah Alatawi3ABEF, Tariq Almusned3BE, Syed Shahid Habib1DE

DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.902385

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2017; 23:31-35

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18–29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive functions outcome variables were the response time (attention-switching task [AST]), and the percentage of correct response (pattern recognition memory [PRM] task). Clinical, demographic, blood markers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E) were assessed between groups.

RESULTS: The 2 groups were matched for age and educational status. In comparison to the control group, smokers showed significant cognitive impairments in AST-Latency (p=0.001), AST-Congruent (p=0.001), and AST-Incongruent condition (p=0.001). There was not significant difference in BDNF APOE serum level between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that attention and alertness were significantly impaired in smokers compared to non-smokers.

Keywords: Memory, Nicotine, Smoking Cessation

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416