Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Panobinostat (LBH589) on Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells of Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma Patients and Its Mechanisms
Yanping Ma, Wenhua Liu, Ling Zhang, Gu Jia
Department of Hematology, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:5150-5157
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of LBH589 alone or in combination with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on multiple myeloma (MM) cell proliferation and its mechanism.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: MM cell line U266 and RRMM-BMMNC were treated with different concentrations of LBH589 alone or in combination with bortezomib. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The protein and mRNA level of related genes was determined by Western blotting and qRT-PCR respectively.
RESULTS: U266 cell and RRMM-BMMNC proliferation were inhibited by different concentrations of LBH589 (0, 10, 20, and 50 nmol/L) alone or 50 nmol/L of LBH589 in combination with bortezomib (10 and 20 nmol/L) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. LBH589 significantly induced G0/G1phase arrest and apoptosis in RRMM-BMMNC in a dose-dependent manner. The effects were significantly higher in all combined groups than in single-agent groups (all P<0.05). The mRNA level of Caspase3 and APAF1 were up-regulated gradually, while TOSO gene expression in RRMM-BMMNC was down-regulated gradually in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, LBH589 significantly induced hyperacetylation of histone H4, the protein level of PARP notably increased, and the level of Bcl-X decreased.
CONCLUSIONS: LBH589 can inhibit MM cell growth, block the cell cycle, and induce cell apoptosis, which has an anti-resistant effect on multidrug-resistant cells. LBH589 in combination with bortezomib has a synergistic effect on myeloma cells; its mechanism and reversal of drug resistance mechanism is involved in multiple changes in gene expression.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Cell Cycle, Cell Proliferation, Multiple Myeloma