Serum Lipid, Vitamin D Levels, and Obesity in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Non-Manual Employment
Jarosław Pinkas, Iwona Bojar, Mariusz Gujski, Joanna Bartosińska, Alfred Owoc, Dorota Raczkiewicz
School of Public Health, Center for Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:5018-5026
Increasing age, increased body mass index (BMI), and abnormal lipid profiles contribute to an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Women who have a perimenopausal and postmenopausal reduction in estrogen levels are a high-risk group for vitamin D deficiency. The aims of this study were to compare the serum vitamin D levels, lipid profile, and BMI between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in non-manual employment, and to determine whether there were any interdependent factors.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred women in non-manual employment, aged between 44–66 years, were divided into three groups: early perimenopausal; late perimenopausal; and postmenopausal. Laboratory tests included measurement of serum lipid profiles and vitamin D levels, the BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat were measured. Statistical analysis included F-test analysis of variance and the least significance difference (LSD) test was used for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: For the 300 women who were in non-manual employment, and in the early and late perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods, serum vitamin D levels were reduced (mean 16.8±8.7 ng/mL); 29% of women had abdominal obesity; 41% had excessive body fat accumulation; and 56% had an increased body mass index (BMI) (>25 kg/m²) with raised total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and total cholesterol/HDL ratios (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in non-manual employment, serum vitamin D levels were associated with serum lipid profile and degrees of obesity.
Keywords: Lipids, Menopause, Obesity, Vitamin D