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30 March 2018 : Animal Research  

Hypertonic Saline Alleviates Brain Edema After Traumatic Brain Injury via Downregulation of Aquaporin 4 in Rats

Jian Yin1BCD*, Haixiao Zhang1DE, Huai Chen1CDE, Qingping Lv1DE, Xuhong Jin1AG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.907212

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: ANS1863-1870

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HS) has been successfully used for treatment of various forms of brain edema. Decreased expression of aquaporin (AQP)4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1b have been linked to edema pathogenesis. This study examined the effect of 3% HS on brain edema in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impactor. The HS group was injected with 3% NaCl until the end of the study period. AQP4, TNF-α, IL-1β, and caspase-3 levels were measured by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative real-time PCR. Brain water content was also measured. Apoptotic cells in brain tissue were detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. Brain water content decreased following treatment with 3% HS relative to the TBI group.

RESULTS: This was accompanied by decreases in AQP4, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA and protein levels. TBI resulted in increases in caspase-3 mRNA expression and the number of apoptotic cells; treatment with 3% HS suppressed apoptosis as compared to the TBI group.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 3% HS ameliorated TBI-induced brain edema, possibly by suppressing brain edema, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and apoptosis.

Keywords: Aquaporin 4, Brain Edema, Saline Solution, Hypertonic

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416