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05 February 2018 : Laboratory Research  

Inhibition of Siah2 Ubiquitin Ligase by Vitamin K3 Attenuates Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Chemo-Resistance in Hypoxic Microenvironment

Jixian Huang12ACDEFG, Ziyuan Lu1BCDEF, Yajuan Xiao3B, Bolin He1B, Chengyun Pan1B, Xuan Zhou1BDE, Na Xu1ACDFG*, Xiaoli Liu1ACDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.908553

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR727-735

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A hypoxic microenvironment is associated with resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and a poor prognosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 plays a vital role in the regulation of hypoxia response, as well as in leukemogenesis. However, the role of Siah2 in CML resistance is unclear, and it is unknown whether vitaminK3 (a Siah2 inhibitor) can improve the chemo-sensitivity of CML cells in a hypoxic microenvironment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of Siah2 was detected in CML patients (CML-CP and CML-BC), K562 cells, and K562-imatinib-resistant cells (K562-R cells). We measured the expression of PHD3, HIF-1α, and VEGF in both cell lines under normoxia and hypoxic conditions, and the degree of leukemic sensitivity to imatinib and VitaminK3 were evaluated.

RESULTS: Siah2 was overexpressed in CML-BC patients (n=9) as compared to CML-CP patients (n=13). Similarly, K562-imatinib-resistant cells (K562-R cells) showed a significantly higher expression of Siah2 as compared to K562 cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. Compared to normoxia, under hypoxic conditions, both cell lines had lower PHD3, higher HIF-1α, and higher VEGF expression. Additionally, Vitamin K3 (an inhibitor of Siah2) reversed these changes and promoted a higher degree of leukemic sensitivity to imatinib.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the Siah2-PHD3- HIF-1α-VEGF axis is an important hypoxic signaling pathway in a leukemic microenvironment. An inhibitor of Siah2, combined with TKIs, might be a promising therapy for relapsing and refractory CML patients.

Keywords: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit, Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive, Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitors, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors, Vitamin K 3

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416