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12 March 2018 : Laboratory Research  

Berberine Protects Against Palmitate-Induced Apoptosis in Tubular Epithelial Cells by Promoting Fatty Acid Oxidation

Jiye Sun1BCEF, Xuemei Chen2ABCE, Ting Liu1C, Xushun Jiang1D, Yue Wu1C, Shan Yang2D, Wei Hua3D, Zhengdong Li4F, Huizhe Huang5G, Xiongzhong Ruan67F, Xiaogang Du18ACEG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.908927

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR1484-1492

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Increased lipid accumulation in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) contributes to their injury and dysfunction and progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Berberine (BBR), a natural plant alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, is effective in lowing serum lipid, and has a protective effect on chronic kidney disease (CKD) with dyslipidemia, including diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BBR on palmitate (PA)-induced lipid accumulation and apoptosis in TECs.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2) cells were treated with PA, BBR, and/or palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) inhibitor Etomoxir. Intracellular lipid content was assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red staining. Cell apoptosis rate was evaluated by flow cytometry assay. The expression of apoptosis-related protein cleaved-caspase3 and fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-regulating proteins, including CPT1A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and PPARγ co-activator-1α (PGC1α), was measured by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence.

RESULTS: In the present study, PA treatment increased intracellular lipid deposition accompanied by elevated apoptosis in TECs compared with control group, whereas the protein expression of CPT1A, PPARα, and PGC1α, did not correspondingly increase in TECs. BBR significantly up-regulated the protein expression of CPT1A, PPARα, and PGC1α in TECs treated with or without PA, and reversed PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Moreover, the CPT1A inhibitor Etomoxir counteracted the protective effect of BBR in TECs.

CONCLUSIONS: These in vitro findings suggest that PA can induce intracellular lipid accumulation and apoptosis in TECs, and the mechanism may be associated with inducing defective FAO, whereas BBR can protect TECs against PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and apoptosis by promoting FAO.

Keywords: Berberine, Palmitic Acid, fatty acid oxidation, Tubular Epithelial Cells

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416