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27 April 2019 : Laboratory Research  

Downregulation of G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) is Associated with Reduced Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

Shan Tian1BCF, Na Zhan2CD, Ruixue Li1BE, Weiguo Dong1AG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.913634

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:3115-3126


BACKGROUND: This study is aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the expression of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in gastric cancer tissue using bioinformatics data and immunohistochemistry.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression of GPER mRNA in gastric cancer tissues and normal adjacent tissues was investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and Oncomine database. Kaplan-Meier Plotter identified the association between GPER mRNA and prognosis. Correlation between GPER mRNA and DNA methylation used the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics and the MethHC website. Genes co-expressed with GPER were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas Stomach Adenocarcinoma (TCGA-STAD) underwent FunRich analysis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot evaluated GPER protein expression in tissue microarrays (TMAs) and gastric cancer cell lines.

RESULTS: GPER mRNA and protein levels were significantly lower in gastric cancer tissue and cells lined when compared with normal tissues and cells. The results from GSE15459 showed that patients with low levels of GPER mRNA had a reduced overall survival (OS) (P=0.013) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.019). A negative correlation (r=–0.611) between GPER mRNA and DNA methylation was found using the cBioPortal and MethHC. Co-expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) genes were enriched with GPER (P<0.0001). Cox regression analysis showed that GPER protein expression was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.035)

CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of GPER predicts poor prognosis in gastric cancer. GPER may act as a tumor suppressor through the regulation of EMT in gastric cancer.

Keywords: Estrogens, Methylation, Prognosis, Stomach Neoplasms, Aged, Computational Biology, DNA Methylation, Disease-Free Survival, Down-Regulation, Immunohistochemistry, Middle Aged, RNA, Messenger, Receptors, Estrogen, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled


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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416