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26 May 2019 : Laboratory Research  

Continuous Compressive Force Induces Differentiation of Osteoclasts with High Levels of Inorganic Dissolution

Rieko Matsuike1ABCDEF, Kumiko Nakai23ACDFG, Hideki Tanaka23ABDG, Manami Ozaki23DEF, Mai Kanda1DF, Maki Nagasaki1DF, Chika Shibata1DF, Kotoe Mayahara45DFG, Natsuko Tanabe36ADG, Ryosuke Koshi78B, Akira Nakajima45B, Takayuki Kawato23ACDEFG*, Masao Maeno9ADG, Noriyoshi Shimizu10DF, Mitsuru Motoyoshi45ADG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.913674

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:3902-3909

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Osteoclast precursor cells are constitutively differentiated into mature osteoclasts on bone tissues. We previously reported that the continuous stimulation of RAW264.7 precursor cells with compressive force induces the formation of multinucleated giant cells via receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling. Here, we examined the bone resorptive function of multinucleated osteoclasts induced by continuous compressive force.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cells were continuously stimulated with 0.3, 0.6, and 1.1 g/cm² compressive force created by increasing the amount of the culture solution in the presence of RANKL. Actin ring organization was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. mRNA expression of genes encoding osteoclastic bone resorption-related enzymes was examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mineral resorption was evaluated using calcium phosphate-coated plates.

RESULTS: Multinucleated osteoclast-like cells with actin rings were observed for all three magnitudes of compressive force, and the area of actin rings increased as a function of the applied force. Carbonic anhydrase II expression as well as calcium elution from the calcium phosphate plate was markedly higher after stimulation with 0.6 and 1.1 g/cm² force than 0.3 g/cm². Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression decreased and cathepsin K expression increased slightly by the continuous application of compressive force.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that multinucleated osteoclast-like cells induced by the stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with continuous compressive force exhibit high dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone by upregulating carbonic anhydrase II expression and actin ring formation. These findings improve our understanding of the role of mechanical load in bone remodeling.

Keywords: Bone Resorption, Carbonic Anhydrase II, cathepsin K, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9, Osteoclasts, RANK Ligand, Cell Differentiation, Cell Line, Compressive Strength, NF-kappa B, RAW 264.7 Cells, Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B, Signal Transduction

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416