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30 April 2019 : Review article  

Modern Ultrasonography of the Umbilical Cord: Prenatal Diagnosis of Umbilical Cord Abnormalities and Assessement of Fetal Wellbeing

Arkadiusz Krzyżanowski1ABEF, Maciej Kwiatek1BDEF*, Tomasz Gęca1BDF, Aleksandra Stupak1BDF, Anna Kwaśniewska1F

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.913762

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:3170-3180


ABSTRACT: The umbilical cord is the only connection between the mother and the fetus, through which it is possible to transport respiratory gases, nutrients, and metabolites. Thanks to the umbilical cord, the fetus has also the ability to move, which is necessary for its proper psychomotor development. The correct structure and function of umbilical vessels and the entire umbilical cord determine the possibility of proper development and survival of the fetus. Umbilical cord anatomy should be assessed in the ultrasound examination in the first trimester. It is of vital importance to confirm the correct number of umbilical vessels and their intra-abdominal course, as well as carefully assessing the abdominal and placental insertion sites. In the latter half of pregnancy, the use of the Doppler imaging enables assessment of the function of the fetal-placental vessels, thus providing valuable information about the condition of the fetus.

Keywords: Congenital Abnormalities, Fetal Distress, Prenatal Diagnosis, Umbilical Cord, Fetus, Pregnancy, Ultrasonography, Prenatal


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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416