Urocortin Induces Phosphorylation of Distinct Residues of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) via Different Signaling Pathways
Giovanni Corsetti, Zhaokan Yuan, Claudia Romano, Carol Chen-Scarabelli, Alessandro Fanzani, Evasio Pasini, Francesco S. Dioguardi, Francesco Onorati, Daniele Linardi, Richard Knight, Hemang Patel, Giuseppe Faggian, Louis Saravolatz, Tiziano M. Scarabelli
Division of Human Anatomy and Physiopathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2019; 25:139-152
Urocortin (Ucn) is a member of the hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor family and has been shown to reduce cell death in the heart caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor known to function as a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factor, whose activation depends on a variety of cytokines, including IL-6. A recent study demonstrated that urocortin induced IL-6 release from cardiomyocytes in a CRF-R2-dependent manner, suggesting a possible link between CRF-R2 stimulation and STAT3 activation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental work was carried out in HL-1 cardiac myocytes exposed to serum starvation for 16-24 h.
RESULTS: Ucn stimulation led to IL-6 expression and release from mouse atrial HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Ucn treatment led to rapid phosphorylation of JAK2, which was blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or the JAK inhibitor AG490. Urocortin treatment induced STAT3 phosphorylation at Y705 and S727 through transactivation of JAK2 in an IL-6-dependent manner, but had no effect on STAT1 activity. Kinase inhibition experiments revealed that urocortin induces STAT3 S727 phosphorylation through ERK1/2 and Y705 phosphorylation through Src tyrosine kinase. In line with this finding, urocortin failed to induce phosphorylation of Y705 residue in SYF cells bearing null mutation of Src, while phosphorylation of S727 residue was unchanged.
CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have shown that Ucn induces activation of STAT3 through diverging signaling pathways. Full understanding of these signaling pathways will help fully exploit the cardioprotective properties of endogenous and exogenous Ucn.
Keywords: Inflammation Mediators, Myocytes, Cardiac, Urocortins