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15 July 2019 : Clinical Research  

Association Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (baPWV) in Males with Hypertension: A Community-Based Cross-Section Study in North China

Jianhuan Huang12ABCDEF*, Zekai Chen12BCD, Jinhuan Yuan3BCEF, Changyi Zhang12CDFG, Haojia Chen12BD, Weiqiang Wu12DE, Zhichao Chen12BD, Yingchi Liu3B, Mengyi Zheng3BCD, Shuohua Chen4BC, Shouling Wu4CF, Youren Chen2AEFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914881

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:5241-5257

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in hypertensive males.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Altogether, 14 866 male hypertensive participants were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into 3 groups: low BMI group (BMI <24 kg/m²), moderate BMI group (24 kg/m² ≤BMI <28 kg/m²), and high BMI group (BMI ≥28 kg/m²). According to baPWV values, arteriosclerosis (AS) was set as 3 degrees: mild AS (baPWV ≥1400 cm/s), moderate AS (baPWV ≥1700 cm/s) and severe AS (baPWV ≥2000 cm/s). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the effect of different BMI groups on different degrees of AS. The multivariate linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between BMI and baPWV.

RESULTS: Among low BMI, moderate BMI, and high BMI groups, the average baPWV values were 1824±401 cm/s, 1758±363 cm/s, and 1686±341 cm/s, respectively. Prevalence in the mild, moderate and high BMI groups were 91.0%, 87.8%, 81.5%, respectively for mild AS; 55.3%, 48.8%, and 40.0% respectively for moderate AS; and 25.9%, 20.2%, and 14.9% respectively for severe AS. Compared to the low BMI group, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) in the moderate BMI group and the high BMI were 0.71 (95%Cl, 0.62–0.80), 0.43 (95%Cl, 0.38–0.50) for mild AS; and similar trends were shown for moderate AS and severe AS. Based on age-stratification, a negative relationship remained for 35–55 years old participants for different degrees of AS among the moderate BMI group and the high BMI group. A negative relationship was detected between BMI and baPWV in total and different age-stages.

CONCLUSIONS: Among male hypertension participants in this study, there was a negative relationship between BMI and baPWV. High BMI was found to be a protective factor for AS especially in the age range of 35–55 years.

Keywords: Body Mass Index, Hypertension, Pulse Wave Analysis, Adult, Aged, Ankle, Ankle Brachial Index, Ankle Joint, Arteriosclerosis, Asians, Blood Flow Velocity, Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Diseases, China, Logistic Models, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Odds Ratio, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Vascular Stiffness

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416