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18 June 2019 : Meta-Analysis  

Utility of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for the Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Perfusion in Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

Lin-lin Chen1BC, Jun-xiu Zhai1A*, Jie Kang1E, You-shan Li1EF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915252

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:4535-4543

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the assessment of skeletal muscle perfusion in diabetes mellites.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic databases (Embase, Google Scholar, Ovid, and PubMed) were searched for required articles, and studies were selected by following pre-determined eligibility criteria. Meta-analyses of mean differences or standardized mean differences (SMD) were performed to evaluate the significance of difference in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography measured muscle perfusion indices between patients with diabetes and healthy individuals or between basal and final values of perfusion indices after insulin manipulation or physical exercise in patients with diabetes or healthy individuals.

RESULTS: There were 15 studies included, with 279 patients with diabetes and 230 healthy individuals in total. The age of the study patients with diabetes mellitus was 55.8 years (95% CI: 49.6 years, 61.9 years) and these patients had disease for 11.4 years (95% CI: 7.7 years, 15.1 years). The percentage of males in group of patients with diabetes was 66% (95% CI: 49%, 84%), body mass index was 29.4 kg/m² (95% CI: 26.5 kg/m², 32.3 kg/m²), hemoglobin A1c was 7.3% (95% CI: 6.7%, 7.9%), and fasting plasma glucose was 149 kg/m² (95% CI: 118 kg/m², 179 kg/m²). Time to peak intensity after provocation was significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in healthy individuals (SMD 1.18 [95% CI: 0.60, 1.76]; P<0.00001). In patients with diabetes, insulin administration did not improve contrast-enhanced ultrasonography measured muscle perfusion indices but exercise improved muscle perfusion but at a level that was statistically non-significant (SMD between basal and post-exercise values (1.03 [95% CI: –0.14, 2.20]; P=0.08). In healthy individuals, lipids in addition to insulin administration was associated with significantly reduced blood volume and blood flow.

CONCLUSIONS: Our review showed that the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed that diabetes mellitus was associated with altered muscle perfusion in which insulin-mediated metabolic changes played an important role.

Keywords: Microscopy, Acoustic, Ultrasonography, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Blood Glucose, Body Mass Index, China, Contrast Media, Diabetes Complications, Diabetes Mellitus, Exercise, Glycated Hemoglobin A, Insulin, Middle Aged, Muscle, Skeletal, perfusion imaging

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416