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The Effects of Viewing Smart Devices on Static Balance, Oculomotor Function, and Dizziness in Healthy Adults

Donggeon Lee, Soungkyun Hong, Sunhye Jung, Kyeongbong Lee, Gyuchang Lee

Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Kyungnam University, Changwon, South Korea

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:8055-8060

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915284

Available online:

Published: 2019-10-27

BACKGROUND: The number of people using smart devices such as smartphones (SPs) or virtual reality head-mounted displays (HMDs) is rapidly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the effects of viewing smart devices, including SPs and HMDs, on postural balance and the development of dizziness in healthy individuals.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy adults underwent static balance measurements at baseline, and after 5, 10, and 20 minutes of viewing the SP and HMD display. Measurements were taken using a force plate and Wii Balance Board (WBB) and included the parameters of postural sway velocity, path length, and postural sway area. A modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) evaluated oculomotor function and dizziness twice for each device, after 5 and 20 minutes of use.
RESULTS: Compared with baseline, the use of smart devices for 20 minutes had significantly increased effects on balance, oculomotor function, and dizziness than shorter use for 10 minutes or 5 minutes in healthy adults. Postural sway velocity and path length were significantly increased after 20 minutes of use of the HMD and SP when compared 5-minute use and baseline measurements (p<0.05). Postural sway area after 20-minute use of the HMD was significantly increased compared with the baseline and 5-minute and 10-minute use of the SP and 5-minute use of the HMD (p<0.05). The SSQ showed that dizziness was significantly increased after 20-minute use compared with 5-minute use of the HMD and SP (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Longer use of smart devices affected static balance, oculomotor function, and dizziness in healthy adults.

Keywords: Cellular Phone, Dizziness, postural balance