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Risk Factors of Secondary Vertebral Compression Fracture After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty: A Retrospective Study of 650 Patients

Ziqi Chen, Yanping Wu, Shenghua Ning, Tianxiao Ma, Zhanyong Wu

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Hospital of Xingtai, Xingtai, Hebei, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:9255-9261

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915312

Available online:

Published: 2019-12-04

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors contributing to secondary vertebral compression fractures (SVCF) in patients undergoing percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or kyphoplasty (PKP) due to osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2017, 650 patients with regular follow-up were identified and retrospectively analyzed in this study. Of these patients, 410 patients underwent PVP and 240 patients underwent PKP surgery. Patients were followed for 24 months on average, ranging from 6 months to 36 months follow-up. Possible risk factors screened for were age, gender, regional distribution, outdoor activity (ODA), bone mineral density (BMD), surgical methods (unilateral or bilateral), bone cement dose, bone cement leakage, chronic disease history, postoperative anti-osteoporosis treatment, and level of preoperative OVCF. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine potential risk factors.
RESULTS: As a result, 102 patients (15.7%) suffered SVCF after PVP/PKP surgery at the last follow-up. Binary logistic regression model showed that older age increased the risk of developing SVCF [odds ratio (OR)=2.48, P=0.031] while high-level BMD (OR=0.31, P<0.001) and ODA (OR=0.38, P=0.001) decreased the risk. Binary logistic regression model showed the following: Logit (P)=1.03+0.91X₁-1.18X₂-0.97X₃ (X₁=age, OR=2.48, P=0.031; X₂=BMD, OR=0.31, P<0.001; X₃=ODA, OR=0.38, P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, older age and lower BMD were identified as risk factors of SVCF for OVCF patients following PVP/PKP surgery, whereas more ODA played a protective role in SVCF development.

Keywords: Fractures, Compression, kyphoplasty, Osteoporosis, Risk Factors, vertebroplasty