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27 June 2019 : Review article  

Microbial Infections as a Trigger for Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Review

Qun Cai1ABDE, Wei Liu2BC, Mingyan Zhu3CD, Jifang Sheng1AEG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915637

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:4773-4783

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Microbial infection is an important cause of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which is a syndrome that results in multiple organ dysfunction or failure and is accompanied by an increased short-term risk of mortality. Early detection and treatment of microbial infection can effectively reduce the mortality of patients with ACLF. However, antimicrobial resistance has recently increased due to the increased use of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is important to choose appropriate antibiotics and antifungal agents for early prevention or treatment of patients with microbial infection and ACLF to reduce the occurrence of drug resistance and to reduce patient mortality. This review summarizes the current status in the understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, early diagnosis, treatment, and strategies for prevention of microbial infection in patients with ACLF.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Antineoplastic, Bacterial Infections, Liver Failure, Acute, Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure, Early Diagnosis, End stage liver disease, Liver Cirrhosis, Organ Dysfunction Scores, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416