A Two Parameters for the Evaluation of Hypovolemia in Patients with Septic Shock: Inferior Vena Cava Collapsibility Index (IVCCI), Delta Cardiac Output
Cem Kıvılcım Kaçar, Osman Uzundere, Abdulkadir Yektaş
Department of Anesthgesiology and Reanimation, Diyarbakır Gazi Yaşargil Training and Research Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:8105-8111
The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between inferior vena cava collapsibility index and changes in cardiac output measured during passive leg raising test in patients with spontaneous breathing and septic shock.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients were included in the study. All of these 56 patients were diagnosed with septic shock and had spontaneous breathing under continuous positive airway pressure. Patients exclusions included: patients with cardiac pathology, not septic shock, pregnant, spontaneous breathing, increased intra-abdominal pressure, inferior vena cava could not be visualized, arrhythmia and pulmonary hypertension.
Exclusion criteria for the study were as follows: 1) left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 2) cardiomyopathy, 3) medium severe heart valve disease, 4) patients with arrhythmia; 5) pulmonary hypertension, 6) patients without spontaneous breathing (for inferior vena cava collapsibility index, it is not evaluated), 7) patients with >60 mmHg CO₂ in arterial blood gas; 8) pregnant patients; 9) patients with neurogenic shock, cerebrovascular incident or traumatic brain injury, 10) patients whose inferior vena cava and parasternal long axis cannot be visualized, and 11) patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure.
Patients were placed in neutral supine position, and the inferior vena cava collapsibility index and cardiac output 1 were recorded. In passive leg raising test, after which the cardiac output 2 is recorded in terms of L/min. The percentage increase between the 2 cardiac outputs was calculated and recorded.
RESULTS: A moderately positive correlation was also observed between the inferior vena cava collapsibility index and delta cardiac output (r=0.459; r2=0.21), which was statistically significant (P<0.001). The cutoff value for the delta cardiac output was 29.5.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that the inferior vena cava collapsibility index, which is one of the dynamic parameters used in the diagnosis of hypovolemia in patients with septic shock, is correlated with delta cardiac output after leg raising test. We believe that, based on a clinician’s experience, looking at 1 of these 2 parameters is sufficient for the identification of hypovolemia in patients diagnosed with septic shock.
Keywords: Cardiac Output, Echocardiography, Hypovolemia, Vena Cava, Inferior