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Clinical Assessment of Risk Factors for Renal Atrophy After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

Yin Xiangrui, Wei Xiong, Wang Xi, Jiang Yuanbing, Qian Shenqiang, Guo Yu

Department of Urology, Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Chongqing, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e919970

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.919970

Available online: 2020-08-10

Published: 2020-09-28

BACKGROUND: This study explored the risk factors for renal atrophy after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and provides a reference for clinical prevention of renal atrophy after PCNL.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the clinical data of 816 patients who underwent PCNL in our hospital from May 2013 to February 2018 were retrospectively collected. Depending on whether the patient had kidney atrophy, they were divided into a renal atrophy group and a non-renal atrophy group. We collected and analyzed data on patient sex, age, kidney location, duration of disease, stone size, hydronephrosis, renal calculus position (renal ureteral junction or multiple pyelonephritis-associated stones), operation time, intraoperative blood loss, perfusion pressure, and pyonephrosis. The indicators with statistically significant differences were selected and multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the risk factors for renal atrophy.
RESULTS: Among 816 patients, 49 had renal atrophy and the incidence rate was 6.01%. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent risk factors for renal atrophy after PCNL were: duration of the disease longer than 12 months (OR=4.216, P=0.003, 95% CI: 1.714, 7.354), perfusion pressure >30 mmHg (OR=3.895, P=0.001, 95% CI: 1.685, 8.912), moderate and severe hydronephrosis (OR=5.122, P<0.001, 95% CI: 1.847, 9.863), stones located at the junction of the renal pelvis (OR=3.787, P=0.001, 95% CI: 1.462, 7.654), stones located in multiple calyces (OR=4.531, P=0.014, 95% CI: 1.764, 8.196), and pyonephrosis (OR=10.143, P<0.001, 95% CI: 2.214, 16.248).
CONCLUSIONS: The main risk factors for renal atrophy after PCNL are: course of disease more than 12 months, moderate and severe hydronephrosis, pyonephrosis, multiple calyceal stones, stones at the junction of the renal pelvis, and intraoperative high perfusion pressure.

Keywords: Kidney, Kidney Calculi, Patient Compliance, Risk Factors