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Biomonitoring of Aluminum in Urine of Young Lebanese Children Living in Beirut

Rania El-Majzoub

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Mazraa, Lebanon

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2020; 26:e922414

DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.922414

Available online:

Published: 2020-05-04


#922414

BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous, toxic metal to which infants and young toddlers are highly vulnerable. High Al exposure has been associated with various human pathologies. The aim of the present biomonitoring (BM) study was to provide a background for the levels of urinary aluminum (Al) in children ages 7 months to 4 years living in Beirut.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected and analyzed 120 urine specimens using the Shimadzu Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 system equipped with an electrothermal atomization, and using a GFA-EX7i graphite furnace.
RESULTS: The mean and standard deviation of Al level in urine revealed 8.978±12.275 μg/L, which is within the lower range of each of populations in Germany, Taiwan, and Poland. Vitamin intake, powder rice, and the use of Al utensils proved to be major determinants for Al level in urine (significant at 95%).
CONCLUSIONS: The Shimadzu Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 system proved again to be an optimal and reliable instrument that can be used for the determination of Al level in urine, especially if using a GFA-EX7i pyrolytic graphite furnace. High levels of Al were found in the urine of Lebanese children. However, the frequent consumption of canned food did not prove to be a significant factor in determining the Al level in urine.

Keywords: Aluminum Compounds, Child Health Services, Environmental Monitoring



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