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Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients with Liver Abscess: A Retrospective Study of 53 Patients

Wei Zhang, Hongwei Yu, Na Luo, Zhongjie Hu

Department of Critical Care Medicine of Liver Disease, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e923761

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.923761

Available online: 2020-07-13

Published: 2020-09-09

BACKGROUND: Although episodes of liver abscess (LA) have been reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), specific symptoms in these patients remain unclear.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, and final clinical outcomes of LA in 53 HIV-infected patients were analyzed.
RESULTS: The most common clinical manifestations were fever (92.5%), chills (41.5%), and abdominal pain (37.7%). The mean CD4⁺ T cell count in these HIV-infected patients at admission was 328.09±236.192 cells/µL. LA and blood cultures were positive in six (17.6%) and two (5.4%) patients, respectively. Thirteen strains of pathogens, including Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Candida, were detected in LA cultures. Forty-four (95.7%) of 46 patients were successfully treated with antibiotics plus image-guided percutaneous aspiration, drainage, or surgery, whereas four (57.1%) of the remaining seven patients were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. Septic shock [odds ratio (OR)=8.970; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.840-92.110; p=0.014] and ascites (OR=7.057; 95% CI=0.683-72.957; p=0.016) were found to be independent risk factors for poor prognosis. The clinical characteristics of LA in HIV-infected patients were nonspecific, with bacteria being the primary pathogens.
CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics plus image-guided percutaneous drainage can effectively improve treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients with LA.

Keywords: HIV, liver abscess, Prognosis