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30 March 2020 : Editorial  

Emerging Roles of Blood-Borne Intact and Respiring Mitochondria as Bidirectional Mediators of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Processes

Tobias Esch1ABCDEF*, George B. Stefano2ABCDEF, Radek Ptacek2ABCDEF, Richard M. Kream2ABCDEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.924337

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e924337

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, a major goal of our research group has been elucidation of the functional roles of several key regulatory molecules in proinflammatory preconditioning involved in the pathophysiology of seemingly diverse human disease states. By necessity, operational definitions of proinflammation must be intrinsically fluid based on recent advances in our understanding of complex regulation of innate and adaptive immune processes. Similar to systemic acute stress, a physiological proinflammatory state appears to be a key autoregulatory mechanism for maintaining optimal immune surveillance against potentially infective microorganisms, viruses, and toxic xenobiotics. Perturbation of normative biochemical and molecular mosaics of ongoing proinflammatory tone, exemplified by altered expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their respective protein complexes, is hypothesized to be a common modality for initiation and full expression of various autoimmune diseases and comorbid syndromes evolving from metabolic and metastatic diseases. The newly reported presence of “free” (extracellular) mitochondria exponentially adds to our hypothesis that in conditions of acute stress, a new source of potential ATP producers may be recruited and present to deal with such an acute process. Furthermore, given this phenomenon, an early surveillance role and a dysfunctional chronic inflammation-prolonging component may also be surmised.

Keywords: Mitochondria, Morphine, Nitric Oxide, Stress, Physiological, Alarmins, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Autoimmune Diseases, Extracellular Space, Inflammation Mediators, Mitophagy

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416