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The Role of the NOD1/Rip2 Signaling Pathway in Myocardial Remodeling in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Feng-Yi Liu, Bing-Qian Fang, Ling-Min Sun, Xiu-Zhen Zhang, Jin-Li Liu, Yun Yang, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xiu-Li Wang, Yan-Chun Ding

Department of Cardiology V, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e924748

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.924748

Available online: 2020-06-24

Published: 2020-08-28

BACKGROUND: Chronic hypertension changes the function and structure of the heart and blood vessels. This study aimed to explore the role of the NOD1/Rip2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1/receptor-interacting protein 2) signaling pathway in myocardial remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood pressure was measured using a tail cuff. The cardiac structure was observed using echocardiography. Slices of the myocardium were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The expression of NOD1 and Rip2 was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The content and distribution of collagen in the myocardium were observed using Van Gieson staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the interleukin-1 (IL-1) concentrations. SHRs were treated with the NOD1 agonist iE-DAP and NOD1 inhibitor ML130.
RESULTS: The NOD1 agonist increased blood pressure in SHRs, and the NOD1 inhibitor decreased blood pressure; the interventricular septum thickness (IVST) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) of the agonist-treated group were thicker than those of the control group, and the antagonist exerted the opposite effects. The levels of the NOD1 and Rip2 mRNAs and proteins, serum IL-1 concentration, and myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF%) increased in SHRs in the NOD1 agonist group, but the levels of NOD1 and Rip2, serum IL-1 concentration, and myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF%) decreased in SHRs in the NOD1 inhibitor group.
CONCLUSIONS: NOD1/Rip2 expression increased during the progression of myocardial remodeling in SHRs. The NOD1 agonist increased NOD1 expression and promoted myocardial remodeling, while the NOD1 antagonist reduced NOD1/Rip2 expression and protected against myocardial remodeling.

Keywords: Hypertension, Inflammation, Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein, Ventricular Remodeling