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Effect of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Glycometabolism via Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1)/Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) Pathway

Zhi Liu, Fuyun Sun, Zitian Liu, Xiaoyang Wang, Mingxin Jin, Jiajia Mao, Qunzheng Wu, Shaohua Yan, Kai Xu, Kexin Wang, Sanyuan Hu

Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e927458

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.927458

Available online: 2020-08-20

Published: 2020-08-26

BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which sleeve gastrectomy (SG) improves glycometabolism has remained unclear so far. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that bone is a regulator of glucose metabolism, and osteoblast-derived forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and lipocalin-2 (LCN2) are regulators of energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the FOXO1/LCN2 signaling pathway is involved in the anti-diabetic effect of SG.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Insulin resistance was induced in Wistar rats, which were then intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to induce a type 2 diabetic state. Levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c, and LCN2 were analyzed at corresponding time points after SG and sham surgeries. The expressions of FOXO1, LCN2, and the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in bone and hypothalamus were detected by immunofluorescence. FOXO1 siRNA was applied to downregulate FOXO1 expression in osteoblasts of rats. The influence of FOXO1 gene on expression of LCN2 was investigated in cultured osteoblasts by western blot and PCR.
RESULTS: Glucose metabolism in the SG group was significantly improved. The LCN2 expression in bone in the SG group was higher than that in the sham group, whereas FOXO1 expression in the SG group was lower than that in the sham group. The binding rate of LCN2 and MC4R in the hypothalamus was also higher in the SG group compared with that in the sham group. The downregulation of FOXO1 expression in osteoblasts was accompanied by upregulation of LCN2 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the FOXO1/LCN2 signaling pathway participates in the anti-diabetic effect of SG.

Keywords: Bariatric Surgery, Forkhead Transcription Factors, glycomics, Lipocalin 1, Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4