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23 August 2021: Meta-Analysis

Periodontitis and Number of Teeth in the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis

Shuting Gao 1BEF , Jinhui Tian 2A , Yiting Li 1CD , Tingjie Liu 1B , Ruiping Li 1C , Lan Yang 3FG* , Zhankui Xing 1AG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.930112

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e930112

Table 3 Hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) of included studies sorted by adjustment factors in meta-analysis with subgroup as periodontal condition.

ReferenceSubgroupHR/RRCIAdjustment
Gingivitis1.050.88–1.26Age, sex, race, education, poverty, alcohol, systolic blood pressure, marital status, BMI, smoking, physical activity, and cholesterol
PD1.251.06–1.48
Edentulous1.231.05–1.44
PD1.040.97–1.25Age and smoking
1.040.86–1.25Multivariate#
Mild gingivitis1.450.85–2.48Age and sex
Severe gingivitis1.821.09–3.06
PD1.310.78–2.19
Edentulous1.891.18–3.04Serum total cholesterol, diabetes status, smoking status, province of residence, hypertensive status, age and sex
Mild gingivitis1.540.89–2.67
Severe gingivitis2.151.25–3.72
PD1.370.8–2.35
Edentulous1.91.17–3.1
Gingivitis0.990.77–1.28Age, age squared, sex, race, education, poverty Index, marital status, interaction term for marital status and sex
1.020.88–1.18
PD1.281.02–1.61
1.241.08–1.43
Gingivitis1.170.84–1.61Multivariate$
1.050.88–1.26
PD1.200.9–1.61
1.140.96–1.36
Gingivitis1.030.87–1.21several well-established CVD risk factors and demographic variables
PD1.140.98–1.34
Edentulous1.130.98–1.32
PD1.010.87–1.17Age, aspirin, cigarette, smoking, alcohol, history of hypertension, BMI, diabetes, physical activity, history of MI and angina*
PD1.41.1–1.6Age, sex, education, smoking, diabetes, number of siblings, hypertension, and BMI
Moderate PD0.730.26–2.01Age, gender, smoking
severe PD0.780.27–2.21
PD2.510.95–6.62Age
2.260.84–6.02Age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and BMI
PD1.341.12–1.62Age
1.351.05–1.73Multivariate&
# The multivariate model includes age (continuous); body mass index (BMI) (5 categories); exercise (5 categories); smoking habits (current smoker [number of cigarettes smoked: 1–14, 15–24, 25+], former smoker, or never smoked); alcohol consumption (7 categories); family history of myocardial infarction (MI) before 60 years of age; vitamin E (5 categories).
$ Multivariate model includes demographics and socioeconomic status: age, sex, race, poverty index, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, cigarettes, blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, height, physical activity).
* Age (years), aspirin and beta-carotene treatment assignment, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, history of hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥95 mmHg or history of treatment for high blood pressure), BMI, reported history of diabetes, physical activity (reported vigorous exercise once per week or more), parental history of myocardial infarction (MI) and history of angina.
& Multivariate model includes age, race/ethnicity, BMI, education, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, family history of MI, physical activities, and C-reactive protein.
BMI – body mass index; HR/RR – hazard ratio/relative risk; CI – confidence interval; MI – myocardial infarction.

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416