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26 February 2022: Review Articles

A Review of Current Clinical Concepts in the Pathophysiology, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Hypercalcemia

Carolina Rodrigues Tonon ABCDEF* , Taline Alisson Artemis Lazzarin Silva ABCDEF , Filipe Welson Leal Pereira ABDE , Diego Aparecido Rios Queiroz ABDE , Edson Luiz Favero Junior BD , Danilo Martins E , Paula Schimdt Azevedo ABE , Marina Politi Okoshi ABCDEFG , Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff DE , Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva CDE , Marcos Ferreira Minicucci ACDE , Bertha Furlan Polegato ABCDEFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935821

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935821

Table 2 Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia.

NeurologicalConfusion, somnolence, anxiety, cognitive deficits, behavior changes, coma
MuscularWeakness, muscle pain
GastrointestinalConstipation, nausea, vomiting
RenalDehydration, polyuria, nephrolithiasis, acute kidney injury
CardiovascularBradycardia, tachycardia, atrioventricular blockade, prolonged PR interval, widened QRS, shortened QTc
QTc – corrected QT interval.

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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416
Medical Science Monitor Basic Research eISSN: 2325-4416