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Macrophages Reprogrammed In Vitro Towards the M1 Phenotype and Activated with LPS Extend Lifespan of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

Sergey V. Kalish, Svetlana V. Lyamina, Elena A. Usanova, Eugenia B. Manukhina, Nikolai P. Larionov, Igor Y. Malyshev

(Department of Pathophysiology, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Moscow, Russian Federation)

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2015; 21:226-234

DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.895563

BACKGROUND: The majority of tumors trigger macrophage reprogramming from an anti-tumor M1 phenotype towards a pro-tumor M2 phenotype. The M2 phenotype promotes tumor growth. We hypothesized that increasing the number of M1 macrophages in a tumor would limit carcinogenesis and extend the lifespan of the tumor host. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). The objectives were to evaluate effects of 1) EAC on a macrophage phenotype and NO-producing macrophage activity in vivo; 2) ascitic fluid from mice with EAC on a macrophage phenotype and NO-producing macrophage activity in vitro; and 3) in vitro reprogrammed M1 macrophages on lifespan of mice with EAC.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted using C57BL/6J mice.
RESULTS: Concentration of nitrite, a stable NO metabolite and an index of NO production, was measured spectrophotometrically. Shifts of macrophage phenotype were assessed by changes in NO production as well as by amounts of CD80, a marker of M1 phenotype, and CD206, a marker of M2 phenotype. The CD markers were measured by flow cytometry. Macrophages were reprogrammed towards the M1 phenotype using two reprogramming factors: 0% FBS and 20 ng/ml IFN-γ. The study results showed that 1) EAC inhibited the macrophage NO production in vivo and reprogrammed macrophages towards the M2 phenotype; 2) ascitic fluid of mice with EAC inhibited the macrophage NO production in vitro and reprogrammed macrophages towards the M2 phenotype; and 3) injection of in vitro reprogrammed M1 macrophages into mice with EAC significantly increased the lifespan of mice.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that promising biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth could be developed based on the in vitro macrophage reprogramming.

Keywords: Ascites, Animals, biomarkers, Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor - therapy, Cellular Reprogramming - drug effects, Lipopolysaccharides, Macrophages - metabolism, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Nitric Oxide

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