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Evaluation of the Maintained Effect of 3% Hypertonic Saline Solution in an Animal Model of Intracranial Hypertension

Leonardo M. Sousa, Jr., Almir F. de Andrade, Alessandro R. Belon, Matheus S. Soares, Robson Luis Amorim, Jose Pinhata Otochi, Manoel J. Teixeira, Wellingson S. Paiva

(Division of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil)

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2016; 22:123-127

DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.899661

BACKGROUND: Current clinical treatment methods for refractory intracranial hypertension include elevation of the decubitus, ventilation adjustment, and use of hypertonic solutions such as hypertonic saline and mannitol solutions. Previous studies have shown that hypertonic solutions are particularly effective. Although several concentrations of saline solution have been proposed, a 3% solution is the most widely used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maintained efficacy of a 3% hypertonic saline solution in an experimental model of intracranial hypertension.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A porcine model of reversible intracranial hypertension was created by inserting a balloon catheter into the brain parenchyma, which was inflated and deflated to simulate intracranial hypertension and its surgical correction. The experiment included 3 groups of animals (A, B, and C) with different balloon inflation volumes. In group B, balloons were inflated 2 times to simulate reexpansion. A 20 mL/kg bolus of 3% saline solution was infused using a pump 90 minutes after the start of balloon inflation, and the effects of intracranial pressure were evaluated 60 minutes after infusion.
RESULTS: No increases outside of the normal range were observed in mean serum sodium concentrations (p=0.09). In addition, we identified no differences within each group in serum sodium levels measured during hypertonic saline infusion (p=0.21). No significant reductions in intracranial pressure were observed in any of the 3 groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Bolus infusion of 3% hypertonic saline solution with the aid of a pump does not significantly reduce intracranial pressure in an animal model of intracranial hypertension.

Keywords: Intracranial Hypertension, Intracranial Pressure, Saline Solution, Hypertonic

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