07 July 2022>: Laboratory Research
Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, Migration Inhibition, and Autophagy-Induced by Crude Ricin from Seeds in A549 Lung Cancer Cell LinesIrma Erika Herawati 12ABCDEF , Ronny Lesmana 345ABDEF , Jutti Levita ABD1EF , Anas Subarnas 1ABCDEFG*
Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2022; 28:e936683
Figure 2 Annexin V/PI double-staining assay of A549 cells treated with 0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, and 2 ppm of cisplatin and crude ricin (CR) for 24 h. Representative flow cytometry result showing (A) cisplatin-dose-dependent and (B) CR dose-dependent alteration distribution of early and late apoptosis. (A1) and (B1) show negative control of cell line, (A2–A4) show increased apoptotic cells after cisplatin treatment, (B2–B4) show increased apoptotic cells after CR treatment. (C) Bar graph shows the average increased proportion of early and late apoptosis after cisplatin and CR treatment. Data are presented as mean±standard error minimum (SEM) (n=3). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test was conducted. * P<0.05.