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Discoloration of Resin Composites Induced by Coffee and Tomato Sauce and Subjected to Surface Polishing: An In Vitro Study

Cendrella Assaf, Philippe Abou Samra, Paul Nahas

(Department of Restorative Dentistry, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon)

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2020; 26:e923279

DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.923279

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare color stability of 3 resin based restorative materials when immersed into staining media at 0, 3, 30, 45, 60, and 75 days, and to assess the efficacy of surface polishing in reducing possible discoloration.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety composite discs were prepared in a custom-made mold (5 mm diameter and 2 mm thick) from 3 different light cured composites (Filtek™ Z250, Harmonize™, and G-aenial). Color differences of all specimens were measured by a spectrophotometer according to the CIE L*a*b* system. After baseline color measurements, 30 discs from each composite group were randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 10 specimens each. Subgroups (n=10) were immersed for 75 days into different staining solutions: coffee, tomato sauce, and distilled water (control). Solutions were changed every week and color measurements were repeated every 15 days. At day 75, color measurements of the specimens were performed before and after surface polishing with aluminum oxide discs. The experimental data were statistically evaluated using repeated measures one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey’s multiple pairwise comparison with a significance level of 5%.
RESULTS: Of the 3 composites, G-aenial reported the highest color change deviation when immersed into coffee (ΔE=8.674), and tomato sauce (ΔE=7.737) at day 75, followed by Harmonize that also exhibited a significant difference for coffee (ΔE=4.7) and tomato sauce (ΔE=3.8) when compared to distilled water. While Filtek™ Z250 did not show any significant difference between the 3 storage solutions (P>0.05).
Only G-aenial had significant color change (P<0.05) after polishing with aluminum oxide discs for all tested samples, whereas Filtek™ Z250 and Harmonize presented no significant difference after surface polishing (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Under the tested experimental conditions, Filtek™ Z250, among the 3 resin-based composites, exhibited the highest color stability when subjected to coffee and tomato sauce as well. Whereas, G-aenial presented the highest color deviation when immersed in both staining media.
Surface polishing effectively reduced coffee and tomato sauce discolorations for G-aenial’s specimens and had no significant effect regarding Filtek™ Z250 and Harmonize.

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